Apart from the Great Pyramid Complex in Saqqara few buildings and artefacts relate directly to Khufu’s reign. Later descriptions and stories like the Westcar Papyrus (probably Middle Kingdom) and the writings of Herodotus (5th century BC)1 and Manetho (3rd century BC)2 were written many centuries after Khufu’s death and developed over time into distorted descriptions of a cruel and godless pharaoh. Since there are no contemporary sources, few details of his life are actually known. One puzzle piece in Khufu’s life, however, is the recently discovered inscriptions of expeditions and mining activities of Khufu. These signs, sometimes not more than a cartouche or a simple text, can nonetheless give us important information about Khufu’s ambitions and ideas concerning his role as pharaoh, his relationship with the ‘enemies of Egypt’, the outside, and even social changes within Egypt.
pdf file with a short essay about Khufu’s expeditions (written by me):
pdf file mit einem kurzen Essay (englisch) über die Expeditionen Cheops (von mir geschrieben):